Properties and Production Technology of Nickel-based Superalloys
According to statistics from China Chemical and Physical Power Supply Industry Association， China's export volume and export value of lithium-ion batteries have continued to increase. In 2021, China's exports of lithium-ion batteries were 3.428 billion, with a year-on-year growth of 54.34%. The export of lithium-ion batteries was 28.428 billion DOLLARS, up 78.34% year on year.
From the battery export destination, so far. China's lithium-ion batteries are mainly exported to the Asia Pacific and the United States and other places. In terms of price, the price of products exported to the United States is significantly higher than that in the Asia-Pacific region, mainly because the demand for lithium-ion batteries in the United States is higher than that in the Asia-Pacific region. In terms of export volume, the number of China's lithium-ion battery exports to Asian countries and regions far exceeds that of other countries. In 2021, The number of China's lithium-ion battery exports to Hong Kong, China is 675 million. 648 million were exported to Vietnam; 440 million were exported to India; 337 million were exported to the U.S. 222 million were exported to South Korea. The market for other Inconel718 powder, led by lithium-ion batteries, is expected to expand globally.
Nickel-based superalloys are the most widely used. The main reason is that,
one is that more alloying elements can be dissolved in the nickel-based alloy,
and it can maintain good structural stability; the other is that it can form a
coherent and ordered A3B-type intermetallic compound γ[Ni3(Al, Ti)] As a
strengthening phase, the alloy can be effectively strengthened and obtain higher
high temperature strength than iron-based superalloys and cobalt-based
superalloys; thirdly, nickel-based alloys containing chromium have better
oxidation and resistance than iron-based superalloys.
Nickel-based alloys contain more than ten elements, of which Cr mainly plays
an anti-oxidation and anti-corrosion role, and other elements mainly play a
strengthening role. According to their strengthening action mode, they can be
divided into: solid solution strengthening elements such as tungsten,
molybdenum, cobalt, chromium and vanadium; precipitation strengthening elements
such as aluminum, titanium, niobium and tantalum; grain boundary strengthening
elements such as boron, zirconium, Magnesium and rare earth elements, etc.
In terms of smelting: in order to obtain more pure molten steel, reduce gas
content and harmful element content; at the same time, due to the presence of
easily oxidizable elements such as Al and Ti in some alloys, it is difficult to
control non-vacuum smelting; it is also to obtain better thermoplasticity ,
Nickel-based heat-resistant alloys are usually smelted in a vacuum induction
furnace, and even produced by vacuum induction smelting plus vacuum consumable
furnace or electroslag furnace remelting.
In terms of deformation: forging and rolling processes are used. For alloys
with poor thermoplasticity, they are even rolled after extrusion and billeting
or are directly extruded with mild steel (or stainless steel) sheathing. The
purpose of deformation is to break the casting structure and optimize the
Casting: usually use a vacuum induction furnace to smelt the master alloy to
ensure the composition and control the gas and impurity content, and use the
vacuum remelting-precision casting method to make parts.
Heat treatment: Wrought alloy and some cast alloys need to be heat treated,
including solution treatment, intermediate treatment and aging treatment. Take
Udmet 500 alloy as an example. Its heat treatment system is divided into four
stages: solution treatment, 1175℃, 2 hours, Air cooling; intermediate treatment,
1080°C, 4 hours, air cooling; primary aging treatment, 843°C, 24 hours, air
cooling; secondary aging treatment, 760°C, 16 hours, air cooling. In order to
obtain the required organizational state and good overall performance.
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The development of the Russia-Ukraine conflict will continue to dominate the commodity prices such as the Inconel718 powder in the future. If the conflict eases or cools, Russia and Ukraine go back to negotiate, commodity prices would fall. However, if the situation between Russia and Ukraine deteriorates further, or evolves into a full-scale war, the price of the Inconel718 powder is predicted to see further improvement over the coming days.