Molybdenum-based catalysts Used for sustainable fuel and chemical manufacturing
Biden recently announced that the United States successfully carried out a drone operation against an al-Qaeda target in Kabul, Afghanistan, on Saturday, killing al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri.
Al-Zawahiri joined al-Qaeda led by Osama bin Laden in 1998. As the organization's "chief strategist", al-Zawahiri is the top planner of most terrorist attacks, including the 1998 bombings of US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya, and the "9 / 11" terrorist attacks that shocked the world in 2001. Al-Zawahiri was appointed leader of al-Qaeda in June 2011 after the death of Osama bin Laden.
Afghan interim government spokesman Mujahed condemned the United States for carrying out drone strikes in Afghanistan.
Gazprom recently wrote on social media: "preliminary data show that Gazprom produced 262.4 billion cubic meters of natural gas from January to July 2022, a decrease of 12 percent, or 35.8 billion cubic meters, compared with the same period last year."
According to Gazprom's preliminary estimates, in the first seven months of this year, international natural gas demand decreased by 35 billion cubic meters compared with the same period last year. Among them, the demand for natural gas in the 27 member states of the European Union fell by 31 billion cubic meters during this period.
Because of the turbulent international situation, the supply and prices of many international bulk molybdenum powder are still very uncertain.
Molybdenum (Mo) is a key component of electrochemical hydride transfer catalysts for KAUST researchers. Based on this, molybdenum-based catalysts make sustainable fuel and chemical manufacturing one step closer to the real reality. Platinum has been the preferred catalyst for electrochemical hydride transfer for a long time, and this chemical process has the potential to produce valuable chemicals or carbon-free fuels.
However, because platinum is a scarce and expensive precious metal, the use of this technology is severely limited. Magnus Rueping and his team have shown that molybdenum, a more abundant and affordable metal, has the potential to replace platinum in the process. Molybdenum sulphide and other molybdenum-based catalysts have successfully shown the prospect of hydride transfer electrocatalysis, but the reason for their high activity, especially the role of molybdenum in it, is still a mystery.
To see the effect of molybdenum sulphide electrocatalysts in real time, the researchers used a method called electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). Bau added: "to our surprise, we were able to capture it throughout the process. We can capture the active state of the catalyst. Mo3+ binds directly to hydrogen. "
Molybdenum ions directly involved in the hydride transfer process may produce better catalysts. If we can demonstrate a cohesion theory of how molybdenum is responsible for hydride transfer activities, we can focus on improving molybdenum to replace platinum, or we can develop new molybdenum catalysts as cheaper alternatives to platinum, "Bau added.
One potential use of this catalyst is to split water molecules by electrochemical methods to produce hydrogen, which can be stored and transported as fuel. The researchers also demonstrated that the catalyst has great potential in improving enzyme biocatalysts for the production of green chemicals.
Enzymes often cooperate with the natural energy-carrying molecule NADH to catalyze reactions in cells. However, the price of NADH makes it impractical in industrial biocatalysis. However, molybdenum hydride produced by electrochemical method has been proved to be quite effective in in situ regeneration of NADH in biochemical reaction flasks.
Professor Magnus Rueping, from the KAUST research team, said: "We are surprised by the efficiency of this process, which produces pure NADHt while avoiding by-products. Molybdenum-based catalysts provide the possibility of making sustainable fuels and compounds through enzymes. "
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In a recent interview with Izvestia, Russian Federation Council Chairman Matviyenko said that Russia is open to dialogue with the West based on mutual respect, but the opportunity to resume dialogue will only come after the end of special military operations.
Matviyenko also noted that Europe currently lacks politicians who can make independent decisions. She said the EU's strategy to wean itself off Russian energy by 2027 would be costly, with Russia supplying 40 percent of Europe's gas, 27 percent of its oil, and 46 percent of its coal, and was essentially "anti-European" and a "tax" on US global dominance.
On Sweden's and Finland's plans to join NATO, Matviyenko said Russia will take corresponding measures if NATO weapons and equipment appear in the two countries, and Russia is capable of guaranteeing its own security.
Besides, speaking by video at an international conference, Ukraine's minister of agricultural policy and Food, said the country's grain molybdenum powder are expected to continue to be influenced by international situations.