How can nanomaterials be used in plastics
Based on the general plastics and engineering plastics, the strength, flame retardancy as well as impact resistance, toughness, antibacterial and aging resistance properties of plastics can be enhanced through filling, mixing or strengthening in addition to other methods.
How do Nano materials modify plastics?
1. Resistant to aging in reinforced plastics
The aging of polymer materials, especially photooxidation aging, begins on the exterior of products or materials with discoloration, cracking, pulverization, glossiness decrease, and then gradually goes deep down into its interior. The properties of polymers that prevent aging directly affect its service life and the environment, specifically for plastics used in agriculture and building materials. It's not simply an indicator that demands more attention but also an important issue in polymer chemical research. The ultraviolet wavelength in sunlight is 200-400nm. The ultraviolet wavelength in the 280400nm spectrum can damage the molecular chain of the polymer which causes the material to start become aging. Nano-oxides such as nano-alumina as well as nano-titanium oxide and the like, have excellent absorption characteristics for radiofrequency and the infrared. When properly mixed, nano SiO2 and TiO2 is able to absorb a significant amount of ultraviolet rays to protect plastics from being damaged by sunlight, and help to keep plastics from cracking, discoloration , and other lighting-related damage, making the material anti-aging.
2. Enhance the anti-mildew and anti-bacterial properties of plastics
Antibacterial plastics typically are made by the addition of antimicrobial ingredients or masterbatch to the resin. Because plastic molding requires to be subjected to high temperatures that's why there's inorganic agents that are able of adapting to high temperature. Traditional antibacterial metal powders such as copper sulfate or zinc Nitrate are difficult to combine into thermoplastics directly. Inorganic nano-antibacterial powder is specially made to create antibacterial plastic masterbatch. This is an easy to be used in plastic products and has good interaction with plastics. It helps in the dispersion of antimicrobial agents. Inorganic silver ions are transported into nano titanium dioxide nano-silicon aluminum oxide, as well as various other inorganic nano-materials. the powder that is formed has excellent antibacterial properties. It is which is then mixed with plastics and molded by UV irradiation for the formation of antibacterial polymers. Its antibacterial properties are created by the slow release of antimicrobial agents for the purpose of achieving the antibacterial effects.
3. Improve the toughness and strength of plastics
Once the second element are added to the polymeric mat, the result is a compound, and a more complete material is created by compounding which helps to increase the strength of the material and also increase the impact strength of the product. The development of nanomaterials offers a new method and way to improve the toughening and reinforcement modification of plastics. The surface defects of tiny particle size dispersed phases are relatively few and there are numerous unpaired atoms. The ratio of the surface atomic number to total atomic quantity of nanoparticles goes up as particles shrink in size. There is a crystal field-like environment, and the energy of binding of surface atoms are different from those that are internal atoms. Hence, they have great chemical activity. Because of the micronization of the crystal field and an increase of active surface atoms the surface energy is significantly increased, which means it can be closely integrated with polymer substrate and has great compatibility. When the substrate is exposed to external forces, the ion is not difficult to separate from the substrate , and it is able to better transfer the external stress. While at the same time that it is subject to the stress field with the substrate, there will be more microcracks and plastic deformations inside the substance, which could result in the substrate bending and also consume lots of energy from impact, in order to achieve the aim of strengthening and toughening at the same time. Nano-materials that are most commonly utilized are nano the silica nano, alumina nano-calcium carbonate.
4. Enhance the thermal conductivity of plastics
The thermal conductive plastics are a kind of plastic products with high thermal conductivity. They generally is greater than 1wper (m. K.). The thermoconductive plastics are getting more and more extensively used because of their light weight, fast thermal conductivity, easy injection moldings, low cost of processing, and so forth. Because of its good in thermal insulation, and conductivity nano-alumina is used extensively in thermal conductive plastics thermal conductive rubber, thermal construction age, thermal conductive coatings and other fields. It is different from fillers made of metal. nano-alumina can not only enhance the thermal conductivity, but also improve the effect of insulation, and the physical properties of plastics can be enhanced.
5. Enhance processesability for plastics
Certain polymers such as ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with viscosity average molecular mass greater than 150 min, have outstanding overall properties, but they are not easily manufactured and processed due their large viscosity. This restricts their usage and popularization. In order to take advantage of the lower interlaminar friction value of thin layers of silicate, the nano-rare earth/ultra-high weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) composite was constructed by fully mixing UHMWPE with layered silicate, to reduce the interlocking of the UHMWPE molecular chain and reduce the viscosity. Play a good role in the lubrication process, and thus significantly improve the efficiency of its processing.
6. The addition of nanomaterials makes plastics more functional.
Metal nanoparticles can be found in heterogeneous nucleation that can trigger the formation and formation of different crystal types that give toughness and durability to materials. When polypropylene contains low melting point metal nanoparticles It is discovered that they play the function of conductive channels, which can aid in strengthening and strengthening polypropylene and its low melting point improves the processability of the composites.
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