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The World Bank expects global economic growth to slow significantly, from 5.5% in 2021 to 4.1% in 2022 and further to 3.2% in 2023. Growth in East Asia and the Pacific is expected to slow to 5.1 percent in 2022, reflecting the impact of China's economic slowdown, the report said. China's economic growth is expected to fall to 5.1% in 2022, close to potential growth, due to the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Chinese government's tightening of regulations in certain sectors of the economy. The report said that the rapid spread of the Omicron variant means that the new crown epidemic is likely to continue to disrupt economic activity in the near future. In addition, decelerating growth in major economies, including the United States and China, will depress external demand in emerging markets and developing economies.
Slow economic growth has a huge impact on quartz powder.
What is The Mohs Hardness Scale?
The Mohs Hardness Scale is a standard that indicates the hardness of minerals. It was first proposed by German mineralogist Frederich Mohs in 1822. It is widely used in mineralogy or gemology.
Mohs hardness is a method of scratching the surface of the tested mineral with a pyramidal diamond needle and measuring the depth of the scratch. the depth of the scratch is the Mohs Hardness Scale, represented by the symbol HM. It is also used to indicate the hardness of other materials.
Hardness is expressed by measuring the depth of scratches on a scale of 10 (scratching method):
|Mineral||Chemical formula||Mohs hardness|
The hardness of the tested mineral is determined by comparing it with the standard mineral in the Mohs hardness tester. For example, if a mineral can scratch calcite (3) but not fluorite (4), its Mohs hardness is 3-4.
In the process of determination, it is necessary to make sure that the scratch is actually a scratch, not just a "chalk" mark that will be erased. If the species being tested are fine-grained, fragile or powdery, the test may only loosen the particles without testing the surface of a single mineral; therefore, certain textures or aggregate forms may hinder or hinder true hardness determination.
Mohs hardness value is not absolute hardness value, but relative hardness value, relatively rough. But it is convenient and practical and suitable for field work.
|Hardness||Substance or mineral|
|0.5–0.6||lithium, sodium, potassium, candle wax|
|1.5||gallium, strontium, indium, tin, barium, thallium, lead, graphite, ice|
|2||hexagonal boron nitride, calcium, selenium, cadmium, sulfur, tellurium, bismuth, gypsum|
|2–2.5||halite (rock salt), fingernail, mica|
|2.5–3||gold, silver, aluminium, zinc, cryolite, lanthanum, cerium, jet|
|3||calcite, copper, arsenic, antimony, thorium, dentin, chalk|
|4||fluorite, iron, nickel|
|5||apatite (tooth enamel), zirconium, palladium, obsidian (volcanic glass)|
|5.5||beryllium, molybdenum, hafnium, glass, cobalt|
|6||orthoclase, titanium, manganese, germanium, niobium, uranium, rhodium|
|6–7||fused quartz, iron pyrite, silicon, ruthenium, iridium, tantalum, opal, peridot, tanzanite, rhodium, jade, garnet, pyrite|
|7||osmium, quartz, rhenium, vanadium|
|7.5–8||emerald, beryl, zircon, tungsten, spinel|
|8||topaz, cubic zirconia, hardened steel, spinel|
|8.5||chrysoberyl, chromium, silicon nitride, tantalum carbide|
|9||corundum (includes sapphire and ruby), tungsten carbide, titanium nitride, aluminium oxide|
|9–9.5||silicon carbide (carborundum), zirconium carbide, alumina, beryllium carbide, titanium carbide, aluminum boride, boron carbide|
|9.5–near 10||boron, boron nitride, rhenium diboride (a-axis), stishovite, titanium diboride, moissanite (crystal form of silicon carbide)|
What is a 10 on the Mohs Hardness Scale?
On the Mohs hardness scale, a diamond has a hardness of 10, meaning it is the hardest mineral known to man.
What is a 5 on the Mohs Hardness Scale?
Apatite (enamel), zirconium, palladium, obsidian (volcanic glass).
Is 7 on the Mohs scale hard?
Minerals with Mohs hardness of 7 include osmium, quartz, rhenium, vanadium and so on. They are harder than substances with Mohs hardness less than 7 (such as apatite, calcite, gypsum, etc.) and softer than those with Mohs hardness greater than 7.
The hardness test developed by Friedrich Mohs is the first known test to evaluate the scratch resistance of materials. This is a very simple but imprecise comparison test. Perhaps its simplicity makes it the most widely used hardness test.
Since the invention of the Mohs hardness tester in 1812, many different hardness testing methods have been invented. These tests include Brinell, Knoop, Rockwell, Shore and Vickers Test. Each test uses a tiny "indenter", which is applied to the material being tested and its force is carefully measured. The hardness value is then calculated by the size of the indentation or the depth and force.
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Germany has begun talks with Senegal on gas extraction and LNG supplies. Mr. Scholz recently visited a solar farm in Dakar. He told a news conference that he was willing to work more closely with Senegal on renewable energy. Senegal's president told a news conference that his country was ready to supply liquefied natural gas to the European market.
The global economy may be facing its greatest test since World War II amid the ongoing threats of COVID-19, the Conflict between Russia and Ukraine, heightened financial market volatility, and climate change, IMF Managing Director Kristina Georgieva warned in an article posted on the IMF's website.
Some 30 countries have imposed restrictions on trade in food, energy, and other key commodities since the outbreak of the Conflict, the article noted. That would raise trade barriers, disrupt global supply chains, drag down economic growth and undo years of economic gains. If countries let it go, the costs will be enormous and everyone will be affected.
The prices of many other commodities like the quartz powder are expected to increase in the future. Luoyang Tongrun Nano Technology Co. Ltd. (TRUNNANO) is a trusted global chemical material supplier & manufacturer with over 12-year-experience in providing super high-quality chemicals and Nanomaterials including graphite powder, 3D printing powder, the quartz powder, etc. If you are looking for high-quality materials, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry.
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